In-text: (Gibbs, 1988) Reference list: Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods.

Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic.

  • Read through the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to familiarize yourself with the model
  • When you come across a reference to the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in your reading, make a note of it in a dedicated reference list or bibliography
  • In your writing, when you wish to refer to the Gibbs Reflective Cycle, do so using the author’s name and date of publication (e
  • , “Gibbs, 1988”)
  • When citing the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in APA 7th edition style, include the author’s name, date of publication, and page number (if available) in parentheses at the end of your sentence
  • For example: (Gibbs, 1988, p

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Explained

Gibbs Reflective Cycle (1988 Reference Harvard)

Gibbs Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 as a tool for helping people learn from their experiences. It is commonly used by students as a way to reflect on their own learning, but can also be used by professionals to reflect on their practice. The cycle consists of six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.

Each stage helps the person to think about their experience in a different way and can lead to new insights or understanding. The first stage is description, where you simply describe what happened. This can be done in writing or through talking with someone else.

It is important to be as clear and concise as possible so that you can accurately remember the details later on. The second stage is feelings, where you explore how you felt about what happened. This step can be helpful in understanding your reactions and why they were so strong.

It can also help you to identify any patterns in your thinking or behaviour that may need to be addressed. The third stage is evaluation, where you consider what was good or bad about the experience. This step helps you to make sense of your thoughts and feelings from the previous two steps and decide what was helpful or harmful about the situation.

The fourth stage is analysis, where you try to understand why things happened the way they did. This step involves looking at the situation more objectively and considering all of the factors that may have influenced it. You might ask yourself questions like “What could I have done differently?” or “What were the consequences of my actions?”

The fifth stage is conclusion, where you reach a final understanding of what happened and what it means for you going forward. This step allows you to draw lessons from your experience so that you can avoid making similar mistakes in future or use what went well to improve other areas of your life.

Gibbs 1988 Reflective Cycle

In 1988, Graham Gibbs published a reflective cycle that has become a popular tool for structuring reflection. The cycle is designed to help individuals reflect on an experience in order to learn from it. It can be used in both personal and professional contexts.

The six stages of the cycle are: 1. Description: What happened? When did it happen?

Where did it happen? Who was involved? What were the circumstances?

What were your thoughts and feelings at the time? 2. Reflection: What was your initial reaction to what happened? What were your thoughts and feelings after some time had passed?

How have your thoughts and feelings changed since then? 3. Analysis: What sense can you make of what happened? Why do you think it happened as it did?

How might things have been different if other choices had been made or other factors had been present? 4. Conclusion: What have you learned from reflecting on this experience? How will this new learning be useful to you in the future?

5. Action Plan: If something similar happens again in the future, what could you do differently to handle it better or prevent it from happening again altogether ?

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle Original Source

In 1988, American educator and researcher Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle model. The model is a framework that aids in structuring and conducting reflection. It remains one of the most popular reflective models to date, and has been widely adopted across disciplines.

The Reflective Cycle consists of six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion, and action plan. Each stage represents a different level of depth and detail in terms of reflection. For example, the first stage (description) simply involves recounting what happened.

In contrast, the final stage (action plan) requires the reflector to consider how they will change their behavior in light of what was learned from the experience being reflected upon. While there is no set order in which the stages must be completed, it is generally recommended that reflectors start with a more superficial level of reflection (e.g., description), and then move on to deeper levels (e.g., feelings, evaluation) as they become more comfortable with the process. Additionally, many reflectors find it helpful to revisit each stage multiple times before moving on to the next; this allows for a richer understanding of the experience being reflected upon.

If you’re interested in giving Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle a try, simply follow these steps: 1) Description: Write down what happened during your experience/observation/interaction, including as many details as possible. Try to answer who, what, when ,where ,and how questions .

What did you see/hear? What were your thoughts and impressions at the time? 2) Feelings: Write down your emotions and reactions during and after your experience .

Were you happy? Sad? Anxious?

Excited ? Nervous ? 3 ) Evaluation : Once you have described your experience and noted your feelings about it ,you can begin to evaluate what took place . This step can involve both positive and negative evaluations . For example ,perhaps you felt nervous during your presentation but overall it went well ; or maybe you made some mistakes but learned from them . 4 ) Analysis : In this step ,you will start to understand why things happened as they did by looking at all aspects of the situation . This might include exploring external factors (such as other people’s actions or words )as well as internal ones( such as your own thoughts ,feelings ,and behaviors ).

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle Learning by Doing

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a tool that can be used to help learners reflect on their experiences and learn from them. The cycle consists of six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Each stage provides a different perspective on the experience and helps the learner to identify what they have learned.

The first stage, description, involves simply describing what happened in the experience. The second stage, feelings, involves exploring the emotions that were felt during the experience. The third stage, evaluation, involves assessing what went well and what could have been improved.

The fourth stage, analysis, involves looking at the experience in more detail to identify any patterns or underlying causes. The fifth stage , conclusion , draws all of the learning together to form a final understanding. Finally ,the action planstage sets out how the learner will use their new knowledge in future situations .

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a powerful tool that can help learners to make sense of their experiences and learn from them effectively . By working through each stage of the cycle ,learners can gain a deeper understanding of what happened , why it happened and how they can apply their learning in future .

How to Reference Gibbs Reflective Cycle Apa 7


How Do You Cite Gibbs 1988 Reflective Cycle?

In academic writing, the author’s last name and the year of publication are typically given in parentheses after the relevant information is presented. For example, if you were discussing Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle, you would write: “Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle has been widely used…” When citing a specific section or page number, include that information after the year of publication (e.g., Gibbs 1988:45).

What is the Original Reference for Gibbs Reflective Cycle?

Gibbs reflective cycle is a tool that can be used by students to reflect on their experiences and learn from them. It was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1968 and has been widely used in education and healthcare. The model consists of six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.

Each stage should be considered in turn when reflecting on an experience. The aim is not simply to identify what went well or what went wrong, but to think about why things happened and how they could be improved next time. The original reference for Gibbs reflective cycle is “Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods” (Gibbs, 1968).

This book is now out of print, but it is available to read online through the University of Leicester’s library website.

How Do You Cite Gibbs 1988?

In-Text Citation To cite Gibbs 1988 in-text, include the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses after the quote or reference, like this: (Gibbs 1988). If you’re referencing a specific page number, include that information after the year like this: (Gibbs 1988, p. 55).

Reference List Entry On your reference list, start with the author’s last name and initial(s), followed by the publication year in parentheses. Next, write the title of the article or chapter in sentence case followed by a period.

Then indicate which part of a larger work it is by writing “In” followed by the title of that work in italics, and finally specify where it was published and who published it. Here’s an example for how to cite Gibbs 1988: Gibbs, G. (1988).

Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic Press.

How Do You Cite Gibbs Learning by Doing?

One of the most influential educational theorists of the 20th century, David Ausubel, believed that meaningful learning occurs when new information is related to existing knowledge. He proposed the concept of the “advance organizer” as a means of helping learners establish these relationships and make learning more meaningful. The theory behind advance organizers is that they provide a structure for new information, helping learners see how it fits into what they already know.

Gibbs’ Learning by Doing model is based on Ausubel’s work and takes it one step further. In this model, learning is an active process in which students construct their own understanding through experience. This hands-on approach has been shown to be particularly effective in situations where there is a lot of complex information to be learned, such as in medical or technical training.

It can also be used effectively with students of all ages. When using Gibbs’ Learning by Doing model, educators provide opportunities for students to engage with the material in a variety of ways. This might include activities such as role-playing, problem solving, and simulations.

Students are then given time to reflect on their experiences and discuss what they have learned with their peers. This reflective component is essential to the model, as it allows students to make connections between their experience and the theoretical concepts they are being taught. If you want to cite Gibbs’ Learning by Doing model in your own writing, you can use the following format: (Gibbs, 1988).


In conclusion, it is clear that referencing the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in APA 7 is a simple process. All you need to do is provide the author’s name, date of publication, and page number (if available). Additionally, it is important to note that the reflective cycle can be used in various ways to promote reflection and learning.

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